بررسی عملکرد بذرکار مجهز به شش نوع آرایش کشت مختلف بذور درشت‌دانه و ریزدانه بر روی پشته‌های عریض

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیئت علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

10.22055/agen.2022.39769.1628

چکیده

کشت روی پشته‌های عریض جزو مدرن‌ترین روش‌های کشت در دنیاست. در این نوع کشت، بدون هیچ‌گونه عملیات خاک‌ورزی و به‌صورت مستقیم تمام مراحل کشت در یک مرحله انجام می‌شود. هدف کلی از انجام این پژوهش، ساخت دستگاهی با آرایش کاشت مناسب برای ماشین‌های کشت مستقیم مرسوم در ایران با الگوبرداری از شیاربازکن‌های سایر کشور‌ها بوده است. مراحل ساخت این ماشین در مجموعه صنعتی ماشین برزگر همدان انجام شد. دستگاه مذکور در شش ردیف ساخته شد. در این ماشین از دو نوع موزع مورب پلاستیکی و موزع ساده چدنی بصورت جداگانه برای بذر استفاده شد. نوع شیاربازکن در شش سطح b1: وی قلمی، b2: یو شکل، b3: تی وارون، b4: وی شکل دو بشقابی، b5: صلیبی و b6: لاله‌ای شکل آزمایش شدند. به‌منظور ارزیابی آزمایشی با استفاده از کرت‌های نواری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 1400-1399 به اجرا درآمد. پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده در این طرح: درصد شکستگی، عمق کاشت، یکنواختی توزیع و ریزش بذر و درصد سبز شدن بذور بود. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که شیاربازکن صلیبی در چهار پارامتر مطالعه شده نسبت به سایر شیاربازکن‌ها در سطح 5% معنی‌دار شد. شیاربازکن صلیبی در مقایسه با پنج نوع شیاربازکن دیگر و نسبت به بالاترین اعداد به‌دست‌آمده از تیمارها موجب افزایش ضریب یکنواختی عمق کاشت به میزان 7%، یکنواختی فواصل طولی بذر به‌اندازه 23% و درصد سبز شدن به مقدار 3/2% نسبت به سایر شیاربازکن‌ها شده است. نتایج کلی تحقیق نشان داد شیاربازکن صلیبی در کاشت بذور درشت‌دانه و ریزدانه بهترین عملکرد را دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of seed Planter on Raised Bed with six different planting arrangement models For Coarse and Fine Seeds.

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein haji agha-alizade 1
  • behnam sepehr 2
2 Department of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the modern era, population growth has led to an increase in many related issues. One of these is the causes related to agriculture. In recent years, the use of planting techniques that can properly prepare the seedbed and sow the seeds at an almost uniform depth, has become more necessary than ever. SolidWorks software was used to design this car. Statistical data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software. Cultivation on raised bed is one of the most modern cultivation methods in the world. In this type of cultivation, without any tillage operations and directly, all cultivation stages are done in one stage. The device was built in six rows. In order to investigate six types of planters for growing chickpeas (representative of coarse-grained) and rapeseed (representative of fine-grained), an experiment was conducted using strip plots in a completely randomized block design with four replications in the 2021-2022 crop year. Soil moisture content, soil texture and soil temperature were extracted before planting. The parameters measured in this plan were: fracture percentage, planting depth, uniform distribution and seed fall and seed germination percentage. The machine was built with a working width of 1.5 meters, a length of 1.5 meters and a height of 2.3 meters. The construction of this car was done in the industrial complex of Barzegar Machine in Hamedan city. Type of planter in six levels b1: V-shaped, b2: U-shaped, b3: T- inverse, b4: Two-plate V-shaped, b5: cross-shaped and b6: Tulip-shaped were tested. The main purpose of this study is to build a device with a suitable planting arrangement for direct sowing machines in Iran (modeled on growers from other countries), to develop technical knowledge of the application of some planting methods, to eliminate the traditional methods of the past, Instantaneous monitoring of planting machine performance as well as increasing farmers' confidence in using planting machines to grow fine-grained crops. SolidWorks2021 software was used to design this machine. Statistical data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 25 software. The device was built in six rows. In order to evaluate six types of planters for growing chickpeas and rapeseed, an experiment was conducted using strip plots in a completely randomized block design with four replications in the crop year 1399-1400. The parameters measured in this plan were: fracture percentage, planting depth, uniform distribution and seed fall and seed germination percentage. The construction of this car was done in the industrial. Complex of Barzegar Machine in Hamadan. The type of planter was tested in six levels: b1: v-shaped, b2: u-shaped, b3: inverted t, b4: two-plate v-shaped, b5: cross-shaped and b6: tulip-shaped. The general purpose of this study is to build a device with suitable planting arrangement for direct sowing machines in Iran. The results showed that the crusader has a significant advantage over the other operators in the studied four parameters at the level of 5%.The general review of the research results showed that the crusader has a significant advantage over the other operators in the studied four parameters at the level of 5%. Compared to the other five types of crushers and in relation to the highest numbers obtained from the treatments, cross-planting increased the uniformity coefficient of planting depth by 7%, uniformity of seed longitudinal distances by 23% and germination percentage by 2.3% compared to other Has been planted. The percentage of seed breakage decreased by changing the distribution from cast iron to plastic oblique by 1.25%. These results show the superior design and distribution mechanism, planters and different settings of the machine in the cultivation of coarse and fine grain crops. Increasing the growth rate did not have a significant effect on the parameters of fracture percentage, uniformity coefficient of planting depth and coefficient of uniformity of seed longitudinal distances. However, it has significantly reduced the green percentage. The overall results showed that a cross-planter with a diagonal plastic distribution and a telescopic fall tube is more suitable for sowing coarse seeds. The mentioned planters are not suitable for small seeds. In general, with the results and relationships obtained from the research, it was possible to monitor planting operations and receive feedback on the improper operation of the machine in agricultural fields. The results and coefficients of explanation of the field test were weaker than the laboratory results. Compared to the other five types of crushers and in relation to the highest numbers obtained from the treatments, cross-sowing increases the uniformity coefficient of planting depth by 7%, uniformity of seed longitudinal distances by 23% and germination percentage by 2.3% compared to other planters.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seed
  • germination percentage
  • fracture percentage
  • planter
  • planting depth uniformity