نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه محیط زیست،پژوهشکده انگور و کشمش، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 دانشیارگروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر

3 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده محیط زیست و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

10.22055/agen.2024.45364.1691

چکیده

آلودگی خاک به ویژه آلودگی توسط فلزات سنگین در بسیاری از جوامع شهری مورد توجه قرارگرفته است.امروزه کاربرد بیوچار به عنوان یک روش سالم جهت کنترل آلودگی فلزات سنگین در خاک پیشنهاد شده است. در این آزمایش به بررسی اثر بیوچار دردو رقم انگور(بیدانه سفید و پرلت) در مواجهه با تنش 100 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم کادمیوم انجام گرفته است.پس از اعمال تنش کادمیوم و کاربرد بیوچار(3 درصد وزنی) در گلدان های مورد آزمایش ، نمونه های خاک های منطقه ریزوسفری و نمونه های برگ پس از 2 ماه از اعمال تنش و بیوچار جمع آوری گردید وغلظت کادمیوم به شکل جزءبندی 5 مرحله ای در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ملایر انجام گرفت و در نهایت به وسیله دستگاه جذب اتمی آنالیزگردید و شاخص های فیزیولوژیکی اندازه گیری شد.نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد بیوچار در هر دو رقم انگور باعث افزایش محتوای نسبی آب، کلروفیل و فسفر گردید و میزان نشت یونی را نیز تا حدودی کاهش داد. در فرم های شیمیایی خاک نیز کاربرد بیوچار باعث کاهش فرم های تبادلی و کربناته و افزایش فرم های آلی، اکسیدی و باقیمانده گردید.بیوچار، بخش‌های کادمیوم به راحتی قابل تعویض را به آنهایی که کمتر در دسترس هستند تغییر داد.طبق یافته‌های این پژوهش، در شرایط تنش کادمیوم استفاده از بیوچار در خاک می‌تواند نقش بسیار مهمی در شاخص های گیاهی داشته باشد، بطوریکه مطابق با نتایج این پژوهش، کاربرد بیوچار در خاک می تواند به عنوان یک راهکار مدیریتی برای کنترل کادمیوم در مناطق آلوده به این فلز سنگین در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of biochar on relative water content, ion leakage, chlorophyll, phosphorus and rhizosphere soil cadmium availability in two grape varieties in the exposure of cadmium stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • hoda karimi 1
  • Shahriar Mahdavi 2
  • nasrin hasanzadeh 3
  • rouholah karimi 4

1 Grape Environmental Science Department, Research Institute for Grapes and Raisin (RIGR), Malayer University, Malayer, Islamic Republic of Iran

2 Department of soil science. College of Agriculture, Malayer University.

3 Faculty of Natural Resource and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Islamic Republic of Iran

4 Green Space Design Group, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Islamic Republic of Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction Soil and water pollution, especially pollution by heavy metals such as cadmium,, has been noticed in many modern urban and industrial societies. If heavy metals accumulate in the soil, the capacity of the soil to keep the metals decreases, as a result, they enter the product and their bioavailability increases. Today, the use of biochar is suggested as a healthy method to control heavy metal pollution in the soil.In this research, in order to investigate the concentration of cadmium metals in soil and leaves in the exposure of cadmium stress and using biochar to investigate some physiological indicators of leaves and also to investigate the level of soil composition in 2 varieties of grapes in Malayer city, grape cuttings in plastic pots It was cultivated in the research greenhouse of Malayer University and Faculty of Agriculture.
Materials and Methods In this experiment, the effect of biochar on two grape varieties (white Soltana and perlet) was investigated in the face of 100 mg/kg cadmium stress. After applying cadmium stress and using biochar (3% by weight) in the tested pots, The soils of the rhizosphere area were collected after 2 months of applying stress, and the cadmium concentration was done in the form of 5-stage classification in the research laboratory of Malayer University and finally analyzed by atomic absorption device. Leaf samples were also collected after about 2 months of applying stress and biochar, and physiological indicators such as ion leakage, chlorophyll, phosphorus and relative water content were measured.
The data related to each treatment (three replications) were carefully recorded and analyzed using SPSS software. EXCEL software was used to draw graphs. Duncan's test was used at a significance level of 1%.
Results and Discussion The results showed that cadmium stress decreased the amount of chlorophyll and the relative content of water and also increased the amount of ion leakage. It was also observed that the application of biochar in both grape varieties increased the relative content of water, chlorophyll and phosphorus and reduced the amount of ion leakage to some extent. In the chemical forms of the soil, the use of biochar caused the reduction of exchange and carbonate forms and the increase of organic, oxide and residual forms. Biochar changed the easily replaceable parts of cadmium to those that are less available. In the conditions of cadmium stress, the use of biochar in soil can play a very important role in plant indicators such as relative water content, ion leakage, chlorophyll and phosphorus.The application of biochar decreased the fraction of exchangeable and carbonated cadmium, while the forms bound to Fe-Mn oxide, organic form and residual fractions increased.It was observed that the availability of heavy metals in the soil was significantly reduced with the addition of biochar compared to the control. Biochar significantly reduced ion leakage in both grape cultivars compared to untreated soil. In the organic form, the white Soltana variety in the presence of biochar and stress of 100 mg/kg of cadmium in the soil (6.57) compared to the samples without the presence of biochar (3.39) had an increase of 48.40% in the average concentration of cadmium. In Perlet cultivar, the percentage of increase was 21.45%, all of which showed an increase in organic form in the presence of biochar.Cadmium in soil in exchangeable and carbonate forms decreased after biochar application.In the residual form, the White Soltana variety in the presence of biochar and stress of 100 mg/kg of cadmium in the soil (20.88) compared to samples without the presence of biochar (15.47) had an increase of 34.97% in the average concentration of cadmium. In Perlet cultivar, the percentage of increase was 30.34%, which all showed the increase of residual form in the presence of biochar. Our results showed that the application of biochar can reduce the availability and toxicity of cadmium.
Conclusion According to the results of this research, the application of biochar in the soil can be considered as an efficient management solution to control cadmium in areas contaminated with this heavy metal and can cause positive changes in plant leaf indices.Changes in the concentration of cadmium in different soil forms of grape cultivars as a result of the use of grape trunk biochar show that the use of biochar is a good strategy to reduce the risks of transferring cadmium to humans and the environment in metal-contaminated soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grapes
  • Cd fractionation
  • leaf physiological indices
  • Cadmium