تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر تغییر کاربری اراضی از جنگل بکر و دست نخورده به عنوان مرجع نسبت به سایر کاربری ها بر روی اجزا و جزء بندی کربن آلی خاک در حوضه آبخیز توشناستان گلستان به انجام رسید. چهار نوع کاربری عمده و غالب در منطقه مورد مطالعه شامل جنگل، اراضی کشاورزی، باغ و اراضی رها شده در نظر گرفته شدند. جزء بندی کربن خاک به دو روش فیزیکی و شیمیایی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در تیمارهای کاربری جنگلی و باغی، مقدار کربن پایدار در عمق 10-0 سانتی متر به صورت معنی داری بیشتر از مقدار کربن آلی پایدار در عمق 20-10 سانتی متری می باشد. در تیمار کاربری باغی، مقدار کربن آلی لبایل خاک در عمق 20-10 سانتی متری افزایش معنی دار 35 درصدی را نسبت به عمق اول نشان داد. همچنین، در همه کاربری های بررسی شده به جز کاربری باغی، مقدار کربن آلی محلول در آب سرد در عمق دوم نسبت به عمق 10-0 سانتی متر کاهش پیدا کرد که میزان کاهش برای کاربری های زراعی، جنگلی و رها شده به ترتیب 76/5، 12/12 و 48/1 میلی گرم بود و کاربری جنگلی دارای بیشترین میزان کاهش کربن آلی محلول در آب سرد در عمق دوم نسبت به عمق اول بود. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد که کربن بخش لبایل بیشتر از سایر بخش ها به نوع کاربری اراضی پاسخ دهنده تر بود و روش فیزیکی پاسخ روشن تری به تغییر کاربری اراضی نشان دادند
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Effect of Land Use Change on Physical and Chemical Components of Soil Organic Carbon in Loamy Soils of Toshan Watershed, Golestan, Province
Introduction Globally, deforestation is the dominant land use change process and has severe effects on soil biogeochemical properties. Large areas of the north facing slopes of the Alborz mountain range in northern Iran are covered by extensive loess deposits. Loess often contain little clay results in a loss of SOC under cultivation. Deforestation and cultivation on the loess hillslopes in northern Iran have resulted in a deterioration of soil quality, particularly significant reduction in SOC. Loess lands of Golestan province in northern Iran is densely being cultivated following deforestation. Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), rather than total SOM, have been used as sensitive indicators of soils' quality and response to agricultural management changes. Several physical, chemical, and biological methods have been used to distinguish between labile (or biologically active) and recalcitrant pools of SOM. So, this research aims to investigate the effect of land use change from pristine and undisturbed forest as a reference to other land uses on soil organic carbon components and fractions as an important indicator in the sustainable soil management system and maintaining fertility and controlling soil erosion. Also, the effect of these land use changes on total carbon, soil organic carbon, and finally on the physical and chemical components of soil organic carbon.
Materials and Methods The study area is the Toshan watershed, which is located in the northwest of the city of Gorgan (Golestan province) in the north of Iran. Four major and dominant types of land use were considered in the study area, including a) garden (olive), b) agricultural (cotton), c) virgin or untouched forest, d) abandoned (raspberry). Soil carbon fractionation was done by two physical methods (soil aggregate fractionation method) and chemical method (hydrolysis of organic matter with hot water). The selection of soils in different land uses was such that they have similar initial conditions and therefore the change in soil carbon in each use is related to the change in land use. The obtained data were analyzed based on the factorial design in the form of completely randomized design and using SAS software.
Results and Discussion The results showed that the highest amount of total carbon and soil organic carbon was observed in the forest treatment and in the first depth (6.02% and 3.5%, respectively), which had a significant difference compared to other land use treatments studied. The results showed that despite the absence of a significant difference between the two depths, the amount of stable organic carbon increased with increasing soil depth in agricultural and abandoned uses. The forest land use had the highest amount of stable organic carbon at the depth of 0-10 cm at the rate of 2.51%, followed by garden treatment at the same depth. The lowest amount of stable organic carbon was recorded in the abandoned land use treatment. The highest amount of organic carbon dissolved in water at both investigated depths was obtained in the forest management treatments and then in the abandoned management. While no significant difference was observed between the two investigated depths in the abandoned land use. A significant decrease in organic carbon fractions that can be extracted with hot water was observed in abandoned and agricultural uses, as well as their increase in forest land uses. After the forest land use, the olive garden land use had the highest amount of total and organic carbon, however, there was no significant difference between the agricultural and abandoned treatments. In forest and garden treatments, the amount of stable carbon at a depth of 0-10 cm is significantly higher than the amount of stable organic carbon at a depth of 10-20 cm. In the garden use treatment, the amount of organic carbon in the soil at a depth of 10-20 cm showed a significant increase of 35% compared to the first depth.
Conclusion A significant decrease in organic carbon fractions that can be extracted with hot water was observed in abandoned and agricultural uses, as well as their increase in forest uses. In total, the results showed that the carbon of labile fraction was more responsive to the type of land use than other fractions, and among the different methods of carbon fractionation, physical methods showed a clearer response to land use change.