ارزیابی تاثیر سه ماده‌ی بهساز بر قابلیت کربن اندوزی و دیگر ویژگی‌های خاک و اندام های مختلف گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری پیدایش، رده‌بندی و ارزیابی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران.

10.22055/agen.2020.32253.1542

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر سه ماده بهساز بقایای یونجه، کاه و کلش گندم و کود مرغی بر مقدار کربن­اندوزی و مقدار کربن اندام گیاهی و خاک و برخی ویژگی‌های خاک در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 11 تیمار ( 2، 4 و 6 تن در هکتار کود مرغی، 5، 10 و 15 تن در هکتار بقایای یونجه، 10 و 15 تن در هکتار کاه و کلش گندم، 100 درصد نیاز کودی و شاهد) و سه تکرار و در مجموع 33 نمونه، در مزرعه­ای واقع در دشت ارمو، شهرستان دره شهر در استان ایلام اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد مقدار کربن­اندوزی و مقدار کربن در اندام هوایی گیاه نسبت به ریشه بیشتر بود. بیشترین مقدار کربن­اندوزی و مقدار کربن در گیاه و بیشترین مقدار فسفر خاک در تیمار 6 تن در هکتار کود مرغی و بیشترین مقدار کربن­اندوزی و مقدار کربن خاک در تیمار 15 تن در هکتار کاه و کلش گندم مشاهده شد. مقدار نیتروژن و پتاسیم در خاک به ترتیب 47 و 64 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش نشان داد. با افزودن مواد بهساز به خاک، مقادیر pH و EC کاهش یافت و بیشترین مقدار در تیمار شاهد و کمترین در تیمار 15 تن در هکتار کاه و کلش گندم مشاهده شد که به ترتیب 4/4 و 8/50 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داشتند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر بیانگر این است که مقدار کربن­اندوزی در خاک نسبت به گیاه بیشتر بوده و خاک مهمترین مخزن کربن محسوب می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the effect of three amendment materials on total soil organic carbon potential and other soil characteristics and wheat different organ

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Zeinvand 1
  • Afsaneh Alinejadian 2
  • Mohammad Feizian 3
  • Omidali َAkbarpour 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, Lorestan University, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, Soil Science Department, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.
3 Associate Professor Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, Soil Science Department, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, Lorestan University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

IntroductionDue to the use of fossil fuels, land use changes, and deforestation, it increases atmospheric carbon dioxide, which affects greenhouse gas emissions, results in global warming, effectively. Since crop production directly depends on climate, agriculture is one of the first sectors affected by climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions leads to warming up and warming has devastating effects on organisms life, damaging natural ecosystems, causing floods, droughts, and disrupting the climate and ecological balance. Total soil organic carbon is the ability of trees and other plants to absorb carbon dioxide from theatmosphere and store it as carbon in wood, roots, leaves, and soil.Total soil organic carbon of plant biomass and Total soil organic carbon under this biomass is the simplest and most economically feasible solution to reduce atmospheric CO2. In this regard, an experiment was carried to investigate the effect of three amendment materials (alfalfa residues, straw and wheat straw, and poultry manure) on some soil characteristics, soil and wheat organ Total soil organic carbon potential.
Materials and MethodsTo investigate the possibility ofimproving soil carbon sequestration, carbon content of plant and soil and some soil characteristics, an experiment was design in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in the crop year 2018-2019, in a farm in Dasht-e Aramou, Dare Shahr-Ilam province, in three replications on the wheat plant. Trial factors include two factors, the types and amount of amendment materials (alfalfa residues at 5, 10 and 15 t/ha, straw and wheat straw at 5, 10 and 15 t/ha, poultry manure at three levels of 2, 4 and 6 t/ha and chemical fertilizer is 100 percent fertilizer requirement). The studied traits included root carbon, shoot carbon, root total organic carbon, and shoot total organic carbon, total organic carbon, soil organic carbon percentage, total soil organic carbon, soil nitrogen, soil phosphorus, soil potassium, soil pH and soil Electrical Conductivity (EC).
Results and DiscussionThe use of amendment materials had a positive effect on most of the studied traits compared with the lack of application of amendment materials. The results showed that the amount of Total soil organic carbon and the percentage of carbon in shoots were higher than roots. The highest total organic carbon, percentage of carbon in plant and soil phosphorus were observed in 6 t/ha poultry manure (M6) while the highestTotal soil organic carbon and soil carbon content was obtained in 15 t/ha straw and wheat straw (G15). Also, the highest amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was obtained in 15 t/ha (Y15) alfalfa residues and the lowest amount in control treatment which were 47and 64 percent higher than the control, respectively. Contrary to all measured traits, pH and EC values were decreased by adding soil amendment materials. The highest was obtained in control treatment and lowest was observed in 15 t/ha (G15) straw and wheat straw which was 4.4 percent and 50.8 percent lower than the control, respectively.
Conclusion Gradual degradation of organic matter increases the efficiency of nutrients, the effect of these compounds on the plant's yield and soil properties for several years. The use of high quality plant residues, if combined with optimized management, will have a good result, especially if the timing of the release of nutrients from decomposing plant debris coincides with the need for the crop. Under such conditions, the time gap between the release of elements from plant residues and absorption of elements by the plant will be reduced and by reducing nutrition elements, it will increase absorption efficiency. In general, the effect of fertilizer type and plant residue on the amount of carbon of the plant and soil as well as the amount of nutrients in the soil was significant at 1% level. Among the different treatments, 6 ton/ha of poultry manure had the most effect on total soil organic carbon and carbon storage in plant organs, and treatment of 15 ton/ha wheat straw had the most effect on total soil organic carbon and carbon storage in soil. Alfalfa residue treatment had the most effect on soil phosphorus and potassium content and poultry manure had the most effect on soil nitrogen. Regarding to the lower price of plant residue, it is more appropriate than poultry. Due to availability of poultrymanure in the most parts of the country, it recommends more than other fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbon sequestration
  • wheat
  • Amendment materials
  • Soil nitrogen
  • Electrical conductivity