عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction Salinity is the most important challenge in arid and semi-arid regions. Salt stress, ionic and osmotic components, like other abiotic stresses, lead to oxidative stress that damage cellular membranes, nucleic acids, oxidizing proteins, and causing lipid peroxidation through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant capacities and osmolytes play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity that causes oxidative damages. Applying biological methods such as using of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is very important to reducing the harmful effects of salinity on plants. Also exopolysaccharide production by plant growth-promoting strains helps in binding cations, including Na+, and thus decreases the content of Na+ available for plant uptake. This is especially useful for alleviating saline stress in plants.
Biochar can also alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. Biochar can enhance plant growth either by its direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. The direct growth promotion relates to supplying mineral nutrients, such as Ca, Mg, P, K and S etc., to the plant, whereas, indirect mechanisms involve improving soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics.
Materials and Methods In this research, the effect of halotolerant plant growth promoting bacteria, biochar and gypsum was investigated on enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms of barley such as Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase, Proline and Membrane stability under salinity stress. The experiments were carried out as a factoria with a completely randomize design in greenhouse conditions for 2016-2017. The factors included: bacteria (without inoculation (T0), bacterial isolate T5 (megaterium Bacillus), bacterial isolate T17 (licheniformis Bacillus ), biochar (0 and 5percent w/w), gypsum ( 0and 50 percent gypsum requirement ) and soil leaching (without and leaching with) with three replications. The activity of catalase (CAT) was determined by changes in absorbance at 240 nm (IUg−1FW) (Aeby, 1984). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, according to Minami and Yoshikawa (1979) and the enzyme activity was expressed as (IUg−1FW). Proline content was estimated according to Bates et al., (1973) and expressed as µ mol g−1 fresh weight (FW). Membrane stability was estimated according to Sairam and. Saxena (2001). All statistical analyses were performed using SAS software. The means of different treatments were compared using LSD (P ≤0.05) test.
Results and Discussion The results showed that using halotolerant bacteria and biochar reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in barley plants. This reduction was higher in the treatment containing bacteria T17 (Bacillus licheniformis) biochar and with leaching. Also, inoculated plants with both bacteria had the highest concentration of proline, which was significantly higher in the treatment containing bacteria T17 (Bacillus licheniformis) biochar and gypsum. Also, application of halotolerant bacteria, biochar and gypsum improved the membrane stability of plant. This increase has been remarkable in inoculated treatments with T17 bacteria (Bacillus licheniformi) in saline soil with leaching associated with 50 percent gypsum requirement
Conclusion Generally, results showed that halotolerant bacteria, biochar and gypsum can be used as a tool for reducing adverse effects of salt stress. Inoculation of soil with these bacteria has helped in alleviating saline stress by changing several physiological, enzymatic, and biochemical agents in plant. Bio-remediation of salt affected soils is one of the cheap and eco-friendly approaches for remediation of salt affected lands as the traditional physical and chemical techniques are becoming costly. The plant growth promoting halotolerant bacteria helps in Bio-remediation of salt affected soils and thereby improving the agricultural crop yields.
Incorporation of biochar into salt-aﬀected soil could diminish salinity stress by decreasing soil bulk density, increasing in soil cation exchange capacity, potassium and calcium concentrations, water holding capacity and nutrient and water availability in soil. Also, bichar due to high organic matter content can play a dramatic role in salt affected soil with organic compound defficiency. According to these amended features of biochar in soil, we suggest, more experiments conducted by biochar with diﬀerent material and ratios under saline - sodic soils.