عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction Drying is one of the important stages after harvesting of plants and agricultural products, which plays an important role in the quantity and quality of the active ingredients. The purpose of drying is to reduce water to a certain level for low and stop the microbial activity. Therefore, in laboratories the effects of different levels of temperature and time are investigated on different plant properties during drying operations with laboratory dryers and ovens. It can be said that the principled and thorough drying of medicinal plants is necessary in order to reduce moisture, increase the shelf-life and increase the quantity and quality of the active ingredients.
Today, many control algorithms are used to control temperature, which is much more efficient than the on-off. Fuzzy control is suitable for fast control and high accuracy of proper nonlinear processes. Likewise, the type of ventilation and the placement of thermal elements are also very influential on the heating system and the temperature of the chamber. Today as foreign companies, in addition to focusing on the type of control system and intelligence ovens, many studies have been done on how the element is placed, on its type, the shape of the fan, its type, and the design of the air channels.
Materials and Methods The dryer was designed with software Solid Works and constructed in manufacturing workshop of the Bio-System Mechanics Engineering Department of the Natural Resources and the Agricultural Sciences University of Gorgan, Iran. The device has a fuzzy control system, a ventilation, and fan system. The built-in dryer has two mechanical and electrical parts. This dryer has an external chamber with dimensions of 74 × 50 × 60 cm and internal chamber dimensions of 40 × 35 × 50 cm. The device was insulated with thermal spray foam. The electronic circuit was designed using Proteus simulation software and implemented on the board. The main piece of information processing and controlling the algorithm in the dryer control system is the microcontroller. The microcontroller programming was written by C software and transmitted to the microcontroller with the Code Vision software. The tests were performed at three levels of 60, 80, 90 °C. The programmability of the device was also evaluated simultaneously for four different temperatures and times. The device was evaluated at 4 levels of 90, 70, 50 and 30 °C and four levels of the time were done respectively 10, 10, 10, and 20 min. Also, in the process of increasing temperature, the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 and 90 °C respectively were tested. Also, the stability function and the time to reach the temperature were compared with two samples of the laboratory dryer (oven) imported Memmert and Bender models which had a fuzzy control system and a ventilation system and a built-in oven model in the interior.
Results and Discussion Because exactly as wasted, the temperature of the chamber walls is applied to the chamber, the device is capable of maintaining the temperature of the chamber at the set point. The result of the evaluation in the energy waste from the wall of the device showed that after about 200 min, the temperature of the internal chamber (which was at 80 ° C) was equal to the outside temperature of the chamber. The results showed that during temperature stability, the difference in temperature between different points of the compartment (places where laboratory samples are placed) is less than ±0.5. The programmability of the device was evaluated at 4 levels of 90, 70, 50 and 30 °C; after reaching the temperature of 90 °C, and at the end of the scheduled time, the temperature is reduced to a minimum, reaching the next temperature. Reducing the temperature for other temperatures was also done according to the program. The results of the programmability of the device were shown in the incremental step of the temperature; in the incremental process, as the temperature decreases, the temperature difference between the points is very small and reaches the temperature stability as soon as it reaches the regulated temperature. The control system used can properly maintain the temperature in a stable state. The results of the comparison of the performance of the dryer control system made with other experimental dryers at a temperature of 80 ° C showed that the dryer was able to stabilize the inside of the compartment at the desired point, in comparison with other ovens. The built-in dryer function is compatible with the Memmert UFE500 and the Binder FE53 ovens. Due to the cost of the device, its use will be very useful for conducting research in research centers.
Conclusion The fuzzy control system used in the dryer was able to properly control the temperature of the chamber according to the program. The control system of the device was able to control the temperature of the chamber at a regulated point with a minimum temperature variation (less than half a °C). The built-in dryer was able to reduce and increase the temperature step by step in a given temperature range according to the given program. The performance of the dryer, compared with other ovens, showed that it could match the best of imported ovens.