اثر اسیدهای آلی با وزن مولکولی کم بر رشد و جذب فسفر توسط ذرت (Zea mays L. cv. SC704) در تعدادی از خاک های استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

3 عضو هیأت علمی موسسه تخقیقات پنبه کشور

چکیده

فسفر از عناصر اصلی مورد نیاز گیاه  است که هر ساله به خاک افزوده می­شود و مقدار قابل ملاحظه­ای از آن در خاک باقی می‌ماند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر اسیدهای آلی با وزن مولکولی کم، بر رشد و جذب فسفر توسط ذرتسینگل کراس 704 می‌باشد. این آزمایش گلدانی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار بر روی گیاه ذرت اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل تعداد 6 نوع خاک سطحی از مناطق مختلف استان گلستان و فاکتور دوم ترکیبی از کود فسفری و اسیدهای آلی شامل (1) شاهد، (2) 50 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم فسفر ، (3 و 4) 50 میلی مول بر کیلوگرم اسیدهای آلی (اگزالیک و مالیک)، (5) اسیداگزالیک+فسفر و (6)  تفاله‌گوجه‌فرنگی (25 درصد وزنی) بود.  بعد از 10 هفته، گیاهان برداشت و ویژگی­هایی مثل ارتفاع، وزن تر و  خشک، غلظت فسفر و جذب آن در گیاه تعیین گردید. اثر نوع خاک به­ترتیب  بر ویژگی­های وزن­های تر و خشک (05/0 P) ، ارتفاع گیاه، غلظت و جذب فسفر در گیاه (01/0 P) معنی­دار بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار تفاله گوجه‌فرنگی در مقایسه با شاهد، تیمار کود فسفر و اسید مالیک باعث افزایش معنی­دار جذب فسفر، وزن تر و خشک گیاه  گردید (05/0 P). تیمار کود فسفر + اسید اگزالیک، فقط از نظر ارتفاع اختلاف معنی­داری با مصرف اسید اگزالیک به تنهایی داشت (05/0 P). همچنین بین تیمارهای اسید مالیک و شاهد هیچ اختلاف معنی داری از نظر پارامترهای گیاهی اندازه­گیری شده مشاهده نشد (05/0 P)؛ بنابراین، استفاده از تفاله گیاه گوجه­فرنگی به جای کود فسفر می­تواند به جذب فسفر باقی‌مانده خاک، رشد گیاه و کاهش آلودگی­های زیست محیطی کمک کند و از نظر اقتصادی نیز مقرون به صرفه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on growth and phosphorus uptake via maize (Zea mays L. cv. SC704) in some soils of Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Dordipour 1
  • Zeinab Bastamikojour 2
  • Mojtaba Baranimotlagh 1
  • Abdolreza Gharanjiki 3
  • Mohsen Olamaee 1
1 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2 M.Sc Graduate, Department of Soil Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
3 Scientific Staff Member, Cotton Research Institute, Areeo, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction The most important constraint in maize crop yield in developing contries worldwide, and especially among resource-poor farmers, is soil infertility. Therefore, maintaining soil quality can reduce the problems of land degradation that decreases soil fertility and rapidly declining production levels that occur in large parts of the world which needing the basic principles of good farming practice. For optimum plant growth, nutrients must be available in sufficient and balanced quantities. After nitrogen, phosphorus  is the most limiting nutrient for crop yields, and is essential for maize growth and development. Large quantities of chemical fertilizers are used to replenish soil N and P, resulting in high costs and severe environmental contamination. Maize quantity and quality are increased by utilization of fertilizers, which has become the most important objective of these products worldwide. Phosphorus, is the second most important macronutrient required by the plants, next to nitrogen, and is reported to be a critical factor of many crop production systems due to its limited availability in soluble forms in the soils. The low availability of P to plants is because the vast majority of soil P is found in insoluble forms, and plants can only absorb P in two soluble forms, the monobasic (H2PO4-) and the dibasic (HPO42-) ions. Crop plants can therefore utilize only a fraction of applied phosphorus, which ultimately results in poor crop performance. To rectify this and to maintain soil fertility status, frequent application of chemical fertilizers is needed, though it is found to be a costly affair and also environmentally undesirable. Moreover, phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrientionl element for plant growth. Calcareous soils are frequently characterized by the low availability of P for plant uptake due to the low solubility of P compounds present in soils at high pH and the formation of relatively insoluble complexes, e.g., Ca-P. Many soils in Iran have received large amounts of P fertilizer and consequently contained a high level of available P. On the other hand, the root exudation of organic acids has been suggested to increase P availability in calcareous soils. The most common low-molecularweight organic acids (LMWOAs) identified in soils include oxalic, succinic, tartaric, fumaric, malic, and citric acids and are derived from the decomposition of soil organic matter in the upper soil horizons, microbial metabolites, canopy drip, and root exudation. The concentrations of organic acids in the rhizosphere or in soil solutions vary greatly and range from 10-2μM to over 80 mM. The ability of organic acids to release inorganic anions, such as P, has been reported and has been attributed to desorption of inorganic anions and solubilization of phosphate compounds. LMWOAs and their corresponding anions play a very important role to increase P bioavailability. Many studies have been conducted about the role of organic acids in increasing P availability, but these studies focused on acid soils in which Fe- or Al-bound P is the main P fraction. For calcareous soils where Ca-bound P is the main P fraction, questions that whether organic acids can mobilize P or not still exist. Although, a number of results show that addition of organic acids, especially citric and oxalic acids to soils can solubilize significant quantities of fixed P and reduce the sorption of newly applied fertilizer P. However, there are few studies on the transformations of P fractions induced by organic acids or organic anions, which are important for understanding the mobilization mechanisms of P and for exploring better ways of using different forms of P in soils. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of some organic acids and anions on the solubilization and plant uptake of soil P in some calcareous soils of Golestan province, Iran.
Material and Methods For this purpose, a factorial pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted on maize. The first factor was comprised of 6 soil types from various areas of the province and the second factor was consisted of a combination of phosphorus fertilizer and organic acids (1) control, (2) 50 mg P kg-1, (3 and 4) 50 mmol kg-1 of organic acids (oxalic and malic acids), (5) P + oxalic acid and, (6) tomato fruit residue (25% w). After 10 weeks, plants were harvested and the parameters such as plant height, fresh and dry weights, phosphorus concentration and its uptake were determined.
Results and Discussion Results indicated that soil type effect was statistically significant on the plant fresh and dry weights (P≤ 0.05), height, concentration and uptake of P (P≤ 0.01), respectively.
Results also showed that the tomato fruit residue treatment in comparison with P fertilizer and malic acid treatments results in a significant increase in P taken up, and fresh and dry weights (P≤ 0.05). There was a significant difference between P fertilizer + oxalic acid and oxalic acid alone treatments in only plant height (P≤ 0.05). Also, no significant differences in terms of measured plant parameters were observed between malic acid and blank treatments (P≤ 0.05).
Conclusion Application of tomato fruit residue rather than P fertilizer can help to take up residual soil P, to grow plants and to decrease of environmental pollution, and to be also affordable economically.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • phosphorus
  • Oxalic
  • Malic
  • Tomato fruit residue
  • Maize
  1. Akanni, D.I., and Ojeniyi, S.O. 2007. Effect of different levels of poultry manure on soil physical properties, nutrients status, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Research Journal of Agronomy, 1: 1-4.
  2. Aziz,T., Ullah, S., Sattar, A., Farooq, M., and Mujtaba khan, M. 2010. Nutrient availability and maize (Zea mays) growth in soil amended with organic manure. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12: 621-624.
  3. Balochgharayi, H. 2011. Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on chemical and biological properties of the corn crop. MSc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. 188p. (in Persian with English abstract)
  4. Barahimi, N., Afyuni, M., Karami, M., and Rezaee Nejad, Y. 2009. Cumulative and residual effects of organic amendments on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in soil and wheat. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46: 803-812.
  5. Bertrand, I., Hinsinger, P., Jaillard, B., and Arvieu, J.C. 1999. Dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere of maize and rape grown on synthetic, phosphated calcite and goethite. Plant and Soil, 211: 111– 119.
  6. Bouyucos,G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method improvd for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54: 464-465.
  7. Crowley, J.H. 1998. A mutation in a purported regulatory gene affects control of sterol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology, 180 (16): 4177-4183.
  8. Dabestani Razavi, S., Khorassani , R., and Fotovat, A.  2015. Effect of Oxalic Acid on Increasing Soil Phosphorus Availability for Wheat. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 29: 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract)
  9. Dail, H. W., He, Z., Erich, S. M., and Honeycutt, W. C. 2009. Soil phosphorus dynamic in response to poultry manure amendment. Soil Science, 174: 195-201.
    1. Earl, K. D., Syers, J. K., and McLauglin, J. R. 1979. Origin of the effect of citrate, tartrate, and acetate on phosphate sorption by soils and synthetic gels. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43: 674- 678.
    2. Eghball, B., Ginting, D., and Gilley, J. 2004. Residual effects of manure and compost applications on corn production and soil properties. Agronomy Journal, 96: 442-447.
    3. Fujii, K., Hayakawa, C., Van Hees, P.A.W., Funakawa, S., Kosaki, T. 2010. Biodegradation of low molecular weight organic compounds and their contribution to heterotrophic soil respiration in three Japanese forest soils. Plant and Soil, 334: 475 -489.
    4. Gerke, J., Beissner, L., and Römer, W. 2000. The quantitative effect of chemical phosphate mobilization by carboxylate anions on P uptake by a single root. I. The basic concept and determination of soil parameters. Journal of Plant Nutrient and Soil Science, 163: 207–212.
    5. Ghorbanzadeh, N., Haqnya, Q. Lakzyan, A., and Fotovat, A. 2008. Phosphorus in soil enriched with bone meal and its effect on corn growth. In proceedings of 3rd National Congress of Recycling of renewable organic resources in agriculture, Isfahan Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    6. Giskin M., Hagin, J., and Kafkafi, P. 1972. Corn response to phosphate fertilization and residual phosphate level: III. Greenhouse Experiment. Agronomy Journal, 64: 593-597.
    7. Govere E.M., Chien S.H., and Fox, R.H. 2004. Evaluation of dissolution of nonconconventional phosphate fertilizers in Zimbabwe soils: effect of soil properties. African Journal of Science and Technologhy, 5: 73-82.
    8. Hamilton, M.A., Westermann, D.T., and James, D.W. 1993. Factors affecting Zn uptake in cropping systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57: 1310-1315.
    9. Hao, X., Godlinski, F., and Chang, Ch. 2008. Distribution of phosphorus forms in soil following long-term continuous and discontinuous cattle manure applications. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 72: 90- 97.
    10. Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., and Nelson, W.L. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizer: An introduction to nutrient management, 6th ed., Macmillan Pub. Co. New York, USA, pp: 154-196.
    11. Hinsinger, P. 2001. Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root -induced chemical changes: A review. Plant and Soil, 237: 173 -195.
    12. Hu, H.Q., He, J.Z., Li, X.Y., and Liu, F. 2001. Effect of several organic acids on phosphate adsorption by variable charge soils of cerntral china. Environment International, 26: 353-358.
    13. Imas, P., BarYosef, B., Kafkafi, U., and Ganmore-Neumann., R. 1997. Phosphate induced carboxylate and proton release by tomato roots. Plant and Soil, 191: 35-39.
    14. Javid, S., and Rowell, D.L. 2002. A Laboratory study of the effect of time and temperature on the decline in Olsen P following phosphate addition to calcareous soils. Soil Use and Management, 18: 127-134.
    15. Jones, D. L., and Darrah, P. R. 1994. Amino-acid influx at the soil-root interface of Zea mays L. and its implications in the rhizosphere. Plant and Soil, 163: 1-12.
    16. Jones, D. L., and Darrah, P.R. 1996. Re-sorption of organic-compounds by roots of Zea mays L. and its consequences in the rhizosphere. 3. Characteristics of sugar influx and efflux. Plant and Soil, 178: 153-160.
    17. Jones J.B. Jr. and Case V.W. 1990. Sampling, handling, and analyzing plant tissue samples. In Westerman, R.L. (ed.), Soil testing and plant analysis. 3rd ed. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Inc. Madison, WI., USA. pp: 389-427.
    18. Kazemi, Sh., Azrabady, S., Rahimzada Khoei, F., Nazari, R., and Mardan, R. 2011. Effectiveness of triple superphosphate fertilizer levels on yield and morphological traits of maize. In proceedings of the 1st national conference on modern topics in agriculture, University of Saveh, Iran. pp: 124-139. (in Persian)
    19. Khademi, Z., Malakouti, M.J., and Jones, D.L. 2007. Effect of organic acids on nutrients availability in rhizospjere. Iranian Journal of Soil Research 21: 171-189. (in Persian with English abstract)
    20. Kuczak, C.N., Fernandes, E.C.M., Lehmann, J., Rondon, M.A., and Luozao, F.J. 2006. Inorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earth worm cats (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian rainforest oxisol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38: 553-560.
    21. Loeppert, R.H., and Suarez, D.L. 1996. Carbonate and gypsum. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA, Madison, WI. Pp: 437-474.
    22. Lu, W., Zhang, F., and Cao, Y. 2001. Mobilization of soil phosphorus by low-molecular-weight organic acids. In Horst, W. J. et al. (eds.), Plant nutrition – Food security and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 92: 554-555.
    23. Malakouti, M.J. 1996. Sustainable agriculture and increase performance by optimizing the use of fertilizers in agriculture. Agricultural Education's Bureau of Educational Technology Services Ministry of Agriculture, Karaj, Iran. 460p. (in Persian)
    24. Malakouti, M.J., and Homaei, M. 2005. Fertility of soils in arid and semiarid areas: problems and solutions. Tarbiat modares university press. Tehran, Iran. 518p. (in Persian)
    25. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plant.  2nd ed. Academic Press, USA.889p.
    26. Marschner, P., and Rengel, Z., 2003. Contributions of rhizosphere interactions residual phosphorus in Davidson clay loam. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 30: 617-620.
    27. Mohammadpour Khanghah, A., Alaei, Y., Sajjad Moosavi, S., Jafari, M., and Khabiri, A. 2012. A study on the relation between yield and some maize genotypes traits in the presence of humic liquid fertilizer based on peat. Life Science Journal, 9 (4): 2063-2069.
    28. Moldes, A., Cendon, Y., and Barral, M.T.  2007. Evaluation of municipal solid waste compost as a plant growing media component, by applying mixture design. Bioresource Technology, 98: 3069-3075.
    29. Najafi, N., Mardomi, S., and Oustan, S.H. 2012. Changes in DTPA-extractable copper, iron, manganese and zinc following water logging and application of sewage sludge and animal manure in two different types of soil. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 43(1): 9-22. (in Persian with English abstract)
    30. Nelson, D. W., and Sommers, L. E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Page, A. L., et al. (eds.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9 ASA, Madison, WI. Pp.539-577.
    31. Neumann, G., Massonneau, A., Martinoia, A., and Romheld, V., 1999. Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin. Planta, 208: 373-82.
    32. Olsen, S.R., and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Phophorus. In Page, A.L. et al. (eds.), In Methods of soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological Properties, 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. No. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison Wis., USA. Pp: 403-430.
    33. Othman Sofy, S., and Hama Rashid, A. 2014. Effect of phosphate biofertilizer and different levels of chemical phosphorus fertilizer application on growth and yield of maize. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 4: 160-169.
    34. Rasouli, F., and Maftoon, M. 2010. Residual effects of two organic matters with or without nitrogen on growth and chemical composition of wheat and some soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Soil, 24: 262 to 273. (in Persian with English abstract)
    35. Rhoades, J. D. 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts. In Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series 5, ASA, Inc., Madison, Wis. pp: 417-435.
    36. Ronaghi, A. Chakerolhosseini, M. R., and Karimian, N. A. 2002. Growth and chemical composition of corn as affected by phosphorus and iron. Journal of Water and Soil Science - Isfahan University of Technology, 6 (2): 91-102. (in Persian with English abstract)
    37. Saad, A.S., Muna, A.A., Eltahir, A.O., and Tageldin, E.M.H. 2009. Phosphorus supply and and phasseolus vulgaris performance grown in shambat clay alkalin soil and influenced by farmyard manure. Austalian Journal of Basic and Applid Science, 3 (3): 2598-2606.
    38. Salardini, A. 2000. Soil Fertility and fertilizers. Tehran university press, Tehran, Iran. 343p. (in Persian)
    39. Samaras, V., Tsadilas, C.D., and Stamatiadis, S. 2008. Effects of Repeated Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge on Soil Fertility, Cotton Yield, and Nitrate Leaching. Agronomy Journal, 100 (3): 477-483.
    40. SAS Software. 1999. SAS Intitute. Version 8. Cary. NC, USA.
    41. Sato, S., Sakagochi, S., Furucawa, H., and Ikeda, H. 2006. Effects of NaCl application to hydroponic nutrient solution on fruit characteristics of tomato (Lycopersion esculentum Mill). Scientia Horticulturae, 109: 248-253.
    42. Shariatmadari, H., Shirvani, M., and Dehghan, R.A. 2007. Availability of organic and inorganic phosphorus fractions to wheat in toposequences of calcareous soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 2601-2617.
    43. Sharifi, M., Afyuni, M., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H. 2011. Effects of sewage sludge, compost and cow manure on availability of soil Fe and Zn and their Uptake by Corn, Alfalfa and Tagetes Flower. Journal of Water and Soil Science -Isfahan University of Technology, 15 (56): 141-154. (in Persian with English abstract)
    44. Sharpley, A.N., Singh, U., Uehara, G., and Kimble, J. 1989. Modeling soil and plant phosphorus dynamics in calcareous soils and highly weathered soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 53: 153-158.
    45. Sui Y., and Thompson M.L. 2000. Phosphorus sorption, desorption and buffering capacity in biosolids-amended Mollisol. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64: 164-169.
    46. Taghipour, M., and Jalali, M. 2013. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on kinetics release and fractionatin of phosphorus in some calcareous soils of western Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185: 5471-5482.
    47. Thomas, G.W. 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity. In Sparks, D. L. et al. (eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. No. 5 in SSSA book series, SAS, SSSA Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Pp: 475-491.
    48. Tonitto, C., David, M.B., and Drinkwater, L.E. 2006. Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: A meta-analysis of crop yield and N dynamics. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 112: 58-72.
    49. Van Hess, P.A.W., Jones, D.L., and God bold, D.L. 2000. Biodegradation of low molecular weight organic acids in coniferous forest podzolic soils. Soils Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 1261 -1272.
    50. Vaseghi, S., Afyuni, M., Shariatmadari, H., and Mobli, M. 2005. Effect of sewage sludge on some macronutrients concentration and soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 53: 15-22. (in Persian with English abstract)
    51. Violante, A., and Gianfreda, L. 1995. Adsorption of phosphate on variable charge mineral: competitive effect of organic ligands. In Huang, P.M. and Berthelin, J. (eds.), Environmental Impact of Soil Component Interactions. Vol. 2. Boca Roton, Florida: CRC Press. Pp: 29- 38.
    52. Zhang, T.Q., Machenzie, A.F., Laing, B.C., and Drury, C.F. 2004. Soil test phosphorus and phosphorus fractions with long-term phosphorus addition and depletion. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68: 519-529